Late Martian Weather!

Latest Martian Weather Observations

Martian Weather History:
About the Mars Maps

The latest martian meteorological measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team were regularly posted on this page. The Team used the method of radio occultation to observe the structure of the martian atmosphere. The primary mapping phase of the MGS mission began in March, 1999 and concluded in January, 2001 after one complete martian year. A series of extended mapping missions began that same January and continued until contact with MGS was lost in November, 2006. Details about the MGS Radio Science Team and their investigation of the martian atmosphere may be found elsewhere on this site.

The latitude of the entry and exit occultations varied over the course of the mission. Details about the latitude coverage of the radio occultation measurements may be found here.


Latest Martian Weather Observations

Date of Measurement 09-12-2006 09-12-2006 09-19-2006 09-19-2006
Time of Measurement 04:27 GMT 05:03 GMT 05:12 GMT 05:48 GMT
Local Time on Mars 04:09 12:08 04:11 12:09
Latitude 33.8 degrees N 63.8 degrees S 35.7 degrees N 64.3 degrees S
Longitude 103.9 degrees E 214.8 degrees E 160.6 degrees E 271.2 degrees E
Elevation -4825 meters 573 meters -1771 meters 1607 meters
Surface Temperature -67.4 Fahrenheit -186.3 Fahrenheit -67.7 Fahrenheit -197.8 Fahrenheit
-55.2 Celsius -121.2 Celsius -55.4 Celsius -127.7 Celsius
Surface Pressure 8.23 millibars 5.36 millibars 6.38 millibars 4.53 millibars
Martian Season Early Summer Early Winter Early Summer Early Winter

The time of the atmospheric measurements and the local time of the measurements on Mars are specified on a 24 hour clock. The elevation is with respect to a standard martian reference surface (geoid). The typical atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth is approximately 1000 millibars (1 bar). The atmosphere at two different locations (usually one in each hemisphere) is sampled on each MGS orbit. Due to the changing positions of Earth and Mars and changes in the spacecraft orbit, the latitude and local time of the measurements generally vary slowly from one orbit to the next.


Martian Weather from July-September, 2006
(Northern Spring-Summer/Southern Fall-Winter)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from May-June, 2006
(Northern Spring/Southern Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from May 10-June 30 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from January-February, 2006
(Northern Winter-Spring/Southern Summer-Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from January 1-February 19 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from September-December, 2005
(Northern Winter/Southern Summer)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from September 9-December 31 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from July-August, 2005
(Northern Fall-Winter/Southern Spring-Summer)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from July 1-August 26 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from April-June, 2005
(Northern Fall/Southern Spring)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from April 1-June 30 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from December, 2004-April, 2005
(Northern Summer-Fall/Southern Winter-Spring)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from December 26, 2004-April 1, 2005 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from October-December, 2004
(Northern Summer/Southern Winter)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from October 10-December 22 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from May-July, 2004
(Northern Spring/Southern Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from May 25-July 21 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from March-May, 2004
(Northern Winter-Spring/Southern Summer-Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from March 1-May 24 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from September, 2003-January, 2004
(Northern Fall-Winter/Southern Spring-Summer)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from September 11, 2003-January 19, 2004 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from June-September, 2003
(Northern Fall/Southern Spring)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from June 18-September 10 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from March-June, 2003
(Northern Summer-Fall/Southern Winter-Spring)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from March 22-June 10 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from January-March, 2003
(Northern Summer/Southern Winter)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from January 1-March 21 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from November-December, 2002
(Northern Spring-Summer/Southern Fall-Winter)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from November 1-December 31 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from September-October, 2002
(Northern Spring/Southern Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from September 8-October 31 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from May-July, 2002
(Northern Spring/Southern Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from May 18-July 15 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from March-May, 2002
(Northern Winter-Spring/Southern Summer-Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from March 14-May 17 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from December, 2001-March, 2002
(Northern Winter/Southern Summer)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from December 13, 2001-March 13, 2002 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from February-July 2001
(Northern Summer-Fall/Southern Winter-Spring)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from February 1-July 16 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from November, 2000-January, 2001
(Northern Spring-Summer/Southern Fall-Winter)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from November 1, 2000-January 31, 2001 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from August-October, 2000
(Northern Spring/Southern Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from August 1-October 31 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from March-May, 2000
(Northern Winter/Southern Summer)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from March 1-May 31 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from December, 1999-February, 2000
(Northern Fall-Winter/Southern Spring-Summer)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the northern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from December 16, 1999-February 7, 2000 you may view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from March-June, 1999
(Northern Summer/Southern Winter)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again. If you click in the region of the southern hemisphere where the points are very close together, you will be presented an enlarged view which will allow you to select individual points.


For the martian weather observations from March 9-27, you may view graphs of the following:

For the martian weather observations from May 6-June 27, you may also view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for these periods have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from November-December, 1998
(Northern Spring/Southern Fall)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles (if they exist) for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again.


For the martian weather observations from December 24-31, you may also view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for the period of December 24-31 have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


Martian Weather from January-April, 1998
(Northern Fall-Winter/Southern Spring-Summer)

Click near the center of a point where the martian atmosphere has been sampled and see the surface weather record and temperature and pressure profiles (if they exist) for that location! If at first you don't succeed, please try again.


For these martian weather observations, you may also view graphs of the following:

The atmospheric temperature-pressure profile data files for this period have been permanently archived with NASA's Planetary Data System, and may be accessed here. The profiles may also be viewed graphically from that page.


About the Mars Maps

The locations where the MGS Radio Science Team has retrieved profiles of the martian atmosphere between January, 1998 and May, 2002 are shown on the maps above. The so-called occultation points where atmospheric profiles have been generated from raw samples of MGS radio transmissions are indicated with black plus (+) signs. In the standard occultation configuration, the Team is able to acquire raw data and generate two sets of atmospheric profiles (usually one set of profiles in each hemisphere) for every orbit of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Each set includes profiles of atmospheric density, temperature and pressure as functions of altitude.

Each map is a color-coded representation of martian topography. The highest points on Mars are indicated in dark blue and the lowest points are indicated in dark red. The great Tharsis volcanoes are located toward the left edge of the maps in the vicinity of the equator. Olympus Mons, the largest mountain in the solar system, is the left-most and upper-most of the four Tharsis volcanoes. The Valles Marineris canyon is the long, thin feature (centered near -10 degrees latitude and -70 degrees longitude) shown in deep red to the right of the Tharsis Volcanoes. This canyon is as long as North America is wide, and even its tributaries dwarf our own Grand Canyon! The huge and deep Hellas impact basin is the large circular red feature centered near -40 degrees latitude and 60 degrees longitude.


Last updated: September 21, 2007
Joe Twicken